Developing a tagger dictionary

A Shortcut

If you just want to add a few missing words and their part-of-speech information to LanguageTool and don't care about the technical details, please see "Adding words to the POS tagger" on Tips and Tricks.


A tagger, or POS (part-of-speech) tagger is used to tag, or annotate, words with their respective part-of-speech information (see Wikipedia for more background information). Actually, POS tags usually convey more information, such as morphological information (plural / singular etc.).

Most taggers in LanguageTool are dictionary-based because statistical or context-oriented taggers are trained to ignore occasional grammar errors. For this reason, their output will be correct even if the input was in fact incorrect. While this is a desired behavior for most natural language processing applications, in grammar checking it is simply wrong.

We haven't however tried to train any statistical taggers on incorrect input to correct their output. This remains to be tested by someone who has enough time. However, we did test lexicon-based taggers/lemmatisers. For most languages, we use finite-state automata encoding for them. This means that the plain text files are prepared with a tool in the morfologik-stemming library. The resulting binary files are then used at runtime from Java code by morfologik-stemming library which is bundled with LanguageTool.

Preparing files helps a lot: the Polish input text file of the dictionary is about 190MB but as a binary file it gets squeezed into less than 3MB, plus the speed of the automaton tagger is really high.

Exporting the data

Run DictionaryExporter with the *.dict file as a parameter like this:

java -cp languagetool.jar -i org/languagetool/resource/en/english.dict -info org/languagetool/resource/en/ -o dictionary.dump

It will write the contents of the dictionary to dictionary.dump. The format is three columns separated by tabs: the inflected form of the word, the base form, and its POS tag. It might look like this:

boyar    boyar    NN
boyard    boyard    NN
boyardism    boyardism    NN:UN
boyards    boyard    NNS
boyarism    boyarism    NN:UN
boyarisms    boyarism    NNS
boyars    boyar    NNS

(for the meaning of the English tags, see the documentation in our git repository)

Building the binary POS dictionary

Run POSDictionaryBuilder with two parameters:

  • A plain text dictionary with three tab-separated columns. Use the same format that the DictionaryExporter writes: inflected form, base form, POS tag. Note that the process needs an input file with UNIX line endings, so if your lexicon file comes from Windows, run dos2unix on it before you proceed.
  • An .info file as described below.

For example, to re-generate a binary dictionary for English with the data that the example above has exported, call this:

java -cp languagetool.jar -i dictionary.dump -info org/languagetool/resource/en/ -o output.dict

Copy the result over the existing .dict file in LanguageTool to actually use it.

Building the binary synthesizer dictionary

A synthesizer dictionary is the counterpart of the POS dictionary: while the POS dictionary takes an inflected form of a word and looks up its base form and POS tag, a synthesizer dictionary takes a base form and a POS tag and returns all inflected forms. Creating a synthesizer dictionary works similarly to building the binary POS dictionary:

java -cp languagetool.jar -i dictionary.dump -info org/languagetool/resource/en/ -o result.dict

Note that this command expects the same plain text input as the POSDictionaryBuilder - a three column format. Exporting a synthesizer dictionary, modifying it and creating a new binary dictionary will not work, as the format is a slightly different one.

Building a spell checker dictionary

See hunspell-support

The .info properties file

To make the file working in LanguageTool, you need also an .info file which needs to be placed in the same directory as the binary dictionary. These files already exist for all languages that LanguageTool supports, so you only have to create one if you build a binary dictionary that doesn't exist yet. The file looks like this:

# Dictionary properties

Please note that you can use UTF-8 as the encoding of the dictionary in the .info file but remember that it must match the encoding of the input.txt file. The possible values of the property fsa.dict.encoder are: suffix, prefix, and infix. The first one is the default value, and usually gets reasonably good results (i.e., small files) of the dictionary automaton.

If your dictionary contains lemmas or inflected forms with +, you need to change the separator character. FSA by default uses + to separate the inflected form from the lemma, and the lemma from the tags. Usually, _ is a safe bet, as this character is rarely a part of real dictionary words. You need to change the line containing fsa.dict.separator like this:


If only the tag field contains a separator character (like + for Polish), you don't have to worry. We stop processing after the second separator, so you might have as many separator characters as you want. Joining the tags using + can make the dictionary more compact in a binary form, and the tagger class is able to split the tag in a correct way.


The manual process of creating and exporting a dictionary is documented at the Archive.

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